Table 1

Study characteristics of the included papers

Author/yearCountryTarget populationSample size and settingProposed interventionExpected outcome(s)Evaluation method
Villarreal 200927Republic of PanamaPatients with diabetesSetting: Not reported
Sample size: Not reported
mHealth: Mobile app for providing self-controlSelf-control, patient monitoring, improving communication between patients and doctorNot reported
Koutkias 201026GreecePatients with chronic diseaseSetting: Hypertension outpatient clinic
Sample size:
Not reported
eHealth: Body area network for providing home care services and increasing self-managementHome care service delivery, interoperability, extensibility, access to drug and patient information, access to careNot reported
Beatty 201318USAPatients with ischaemic heart diseaseSetting:
Not reported
Sample size: Not reported
mHealth: A mobile app for improving access, increasing participation and improving outcomes in patientsCost-effective, access to care, behaviour change, patient-centred health, reduce rates of rehospitalisation, increase participationsRandomised controlled trial
Dhillon 201324New ZealandSenior health consumersSetting: Not reported
Sample size: 43 seniors aged 60–85
Telehealth: Web-based system with a Facebook-like plug-in architecture for increasing patient motivationOpen and extensible system, social and emotional support, Feedback and motivation, access to care, cost-effectiveUsability and effectiveness of the framework were evaluated via 6-level Likert scale
Beentjes 201523NetherlandPatients with severe mental illnessSetting:
Inpatient/outpatient clinics
Sample size: Not mentioned
eHealth: e-IMR programme for involving other important people, manage achieving personal recovery goals and reducing relapseAccess to care, cost-effective,Cluster randomised controlled trial
Fico 201525SpainPatients with diabetesSetting: Not reported
Sample size: Not reported
eHealth: A model for providing self-managementCost-effective, maximised usability, user experience, patient engagement, self-managementNot reported
Gee 201519USAPatients with chronic diseaseSetting: Not reported
Sample size: Not reported
eHealth: A model (using mobile devices) for providing self-managementImproving functional and clinical outcomes, patient-centred outcomes, access to care, access to data,Not reported
Salisbury 201522UKPatients with chronic diseases
(cardiovascular disease and depression)
Setting: Not reported
Sample size: 34 patients completed the questionnaire
Telehealth: A model for providing patient engagement (including care coordination, patient self-management, optimisation of treatment)Health outcomes, access to care,
patient experience, cost-effective
Randomised controlled trials
Schnall 201620USAHIV prevention for high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM)Setting: Not reported
Sample size: 5 focus groups with 33 targeted end-users.
(Mobile App) Mobile App for providing self-management
Behaviour change and self-management, cost-effective,
Improving technology acceptance, access to care, to enhance usability, easing the doctor’s duty, usefulness, timesaving
User interface and system function of prototype, end-user usability
Wilhide 201621USAPatients with chronic diseases (diabetes, epilepsy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lupus, HER2 +breast cancer, and low back pain)Setting: Not mentioned
Sample size: Not reported
mHealth; Mobile App for providing self-managementChange healthcare service and self-management behaviour, access to care, cost-effective, user experienceNot reported
Greenhalgh 20179UKIndividuals/patients who abandon health technologiesSetting: Cardiology departments of hospital Sample size: Not reportedTelehealth: A model for predicting and evaluating the success of technology-supported health and social care programmesCost-effective, access to care, client self-refer, patient safety, ease of use, case management,Not reported