Table 2

Conceptual frameworks

Author/yearDH interventionFactors (systemic, organisational, individual or other)Anticipated goals
Villarreal 200927mHealthProviding better communication between patients and providers, improving patient education, diet control, preventive control based on patient condition, decreasing frequent visits to the doctors, providing continuous patient monitoringMake a healthy daily routine for patients, making patients’ lives easier, constant control on glucose tendency, ease the day-by-day life of patients, to enhance patients’ self-control, personalised care and advices,
Koutkias 201026eHealthMedication management, patients monitoring, vital sign measurement, monitoring patient treatment, adverse drug event recognition.Extend home care service delivery, personalised medication treatment, communicating patient and provider, personalisation of healthcare, providing two-way communication between the home care system and clinical environment
Dhillon 201324TelehealthPatient centric, accessibility with web-based system, easy to use interface, share data among multiple applications by using a triple store database, adding new health apps by using Facebook-like plug-in architecture, using a content management, security with encryptionImproving emotional health and well-being, motivating the patients, consultation with the health professionals, tracking (weight, exercise, vital sign)
Gee 201519eHealthSelf-management: access, convenience, reminders, alerts, planning, empowerment, engagement delivery system design: care coordination, interoperability, medical jargon, timeliness, policy, content, networking.
clinical decision support: graphs, charts, protocols, guidelines, reminders, info buttons.
Clinical information systems: Electronic Health Records, Personal Health Records, patient portal, internet, mhealth, smartphone, wearable devices, telehealth.
ehealth education: message training, health education, technology training, e-community training, navigation training, accuracy, completeness, volume of information, customisation numeracy, literacy, usability, security
Patient activation, patient engagement, self-management enhancement, support effective patient–doctor interactions and improve health outcomes.
Salisbury 201522TelehealthChronic disease management, engagement of patients and providers, partnershipHealth outcomes access to care, patient experience, cost-effectiveness
Schnall 201620mHealthUser centred, easy to use, contributing patients in app design.Change behaviour of patients, improving patient self-management,
Greenhalgh 20179TelehealthTo increase clinician participation, increasing the use of patient-facing technology, well-established sociotechnical infrastructure, improving caregivers respond, patient encouragement to connect with call centre in emergency situations.Generating the knowledge or making it visible by technology, addresses the knowledge and support needed to use the technology, sustainability by addressing the issues,
  • DH, digital health.