Table 1

Initial programme theory (acronyms explained and further details provided in the Measures section)

Programme theory
The use of PHR can improve medication adherence in adults with chronic conditions.
What conditions do we need for an intervention to trigger mechanisms to produce particular outcome patterns?
  • Adults with long-term conditions

  • Patient-specific factors (demographic characteristics, health and digital literacy)

  • Disease-specific factors (comorbidities, duration of condition, severity)

  • Patient personality traits: BFI-2-XS

What leads an intervention to have a particular outcome in a specific context?
  • PHR design features that are used

  • PHR type (tethered or stand-alone)

  • PHR problems

Outcome pattern—O
What effects do the causal mechanisms have when triggered in a specific context?
  • PHR benefits

  • Medication adherence: MAQ

  • Health-related quality of life: WHOQOL-BREF

  • PHR design features that would be nice to use

  • Perceived medication adherence and health-related quality of life

  • BFI-2-XS, Big Five Inventory-2 Extra-Short Form; MAQ, Medication Adherence Questionnaire; PHR, personal health record; WHOQOL-BREF, WHO Quality of Life-BREF.