Table 2

Interventions and intervention description

AuthorInterventionIntervention description
Baer et al26Organisational intervention: web-based appraisal tool
  • Web-based appraisal tool used to generate reminders with the help of an electronic decision support system.

  • Self-administered by patients to collect family history information.

Mavigilia et al27Organisational intervention: KnowledgeLink
  • A medication ‘look-up’ button.

  • Allowed physicians with questions about a patient’s medication to access that information with one click from the EMR.

Kortteisto et al28Organisational intervention: computer-based decision support system EBMeDS
  • The EBMeDS collects diagnosis information entered in the EMR and runs it against studies done on the base population generating reminders pertaining to treatment triggered by the data.

  • Presented reminders triggered by accessing the EMR.

Kruse et al30Organisational intervention: electronic one-click referral button to tobacco use control centre
  • Clicking the button sends an automatically generated email to the internal tobacco care coordinator (TTC) centre.

Jerome et al40Professional intervention: focus groups driven by customised educational strategies
  • The EBM worked to directly link evidence expertise to the clinical work flow facilitating easy and direct communication.

  • The EBM was marketed to clinicians at the start of the study.

  • A focus group was conducted at the midway point of the study to discuss strategies to improve use and visibility of the Evidence-Based Medicine (EMB) feature.

de Lusignan et al24Professional Intervention: Primary Care Data Quality (PCDQ) Programme
  • An educational intervention that targeted primary healthcare providers to improve data recording while monitoring and assessing data quality.

  • Three-step intervention:

  1. 1 hour introductory meeting at baseline.

  2. Every 6 months workshops that lasted 2–3 hours were held.

  3. The PCDQ included a Morbidity, Information Query and Export System (MIQUEST) programme. which extracted data to be used in the workshops and produced guidelines on how to code information in the EMR.

Pan et al25Professional intervention: feedback and education
  • First a focus group to get a better understanding of EMR use to appropriate data entry was conducted.

  • Using the focus group data, a 5-component intervention to improve EMR data entry was developed:

  1. Motivational feedback;

  2. Academic detailing: a personalised educational programme, which highlighted the importance of recording patient information;

  3. Improved efficiency of data entry: training on how to correctly use EMR data entry templates;

  4. Post-test feedback;

  5. Awards based on aggregate improvement in data entry.

Maddocks et al31Professional intervention: 2-hour educational session
  • Hands-on training to teach physicians how to manipulate the EMR to generate a list of patients eligible for preventive testing.

  • Provided was also an instructional material tool kit.

  • Feedback on current levels of preventive care in Ontario were provided for comparison.

Sweeney et al33Professional intervention: data management strategy
  • Provided information and training on data recording to create protected, logical and unified levels of coded patient information.

  • Coding was then monitored to provide feedback to primary healthcare providers and management reports.

de Lusignan et al24Mixed interventions: feedback of data quality markers and financial incentives
  • 10 data quality markers were examined for completion, calculated and feedback to the physicians every 3 months to determine if feedback caused an improvement in data quality.

  • A small financial incentive was also given to physicians to reach intended levels of quality scores.

Nemeth et al29Mixed interventions: electronic standing orders provided by a customised health template
  • Customised health maintenance template that provided authorisation to healthcare personnel to carry out medical orders for screening, immunisation and diabetes measures.

  • An introductory meeting was conducted explaining the project and guiding participates in using the electronic Standing Orders (SOs) in their primary healthcare practices.

Davis et al32Mixed interventions: asthma template along with lectures and tutorials
  • Mandatory lecture guidelines for use of the asthma template for proper documentation.

  • Reminders to stress the importance of the template use were also posted in patient care areas and on PowerPoint slides before meetings.