Table 1

Study characteristics

AuthorSettingStudy designNumber of Primary Care Providers (PCPs)CompositionNumber of patients
Jerome et al 40 1 primary healthcare centre
Country: USA
Prospective observational137Attending and resident physicians*
de Lusignan et al 23 *Primary healthcare centres
Country: UK
Retrospective observational576**
de Lusignan et al 24 84 primary healthcare centres
Country: UK
Quasi-experimental25284 physicians
84 nurses
84 managers
~20 000
19 470 preintervention
19 784 postintervention
Pan et al 25 2 family medicine residency training clinics
Country: USA
Quasi-experimental84 certified medical assistants
4 nurses
525 patients
279 preintervention
246 postintervention
Baer et al 26 5 primary healthcare centres
Country: USA
Quasi-experimental**15 495
Mavigilia et al 27 18 outpatient clinics
Country: USA
Quasi-experimental359187 physicians
108 nurses
64 other
413 417
Kortteisto et al 28 1 primary healthcare centre
Country: Finland
Randomised controlled trial4815 physicians
24 nurses
9 other
13 588
Nemeth et al 29 8 primary healthcare centres
Country: USA
Mixed methods74*66 104
Kruse et al 30 2 primary healthcare centres
Country: USA
Mixed methods3621 physicians
3 nurses
12 physician trainees
2894
Maddocks et al 31 9 primary healthcare centres
Country: Canada
Randomised controlled trial24Physicians23 688
Davis et al 32 1 primary healthcare centre
Country: USA
Retrospective observational36Residents360 patients
180 preintervention
180 postintervention
Sweeney et al 33 1 primary healthcare centre
Country: Ireland
Randomised controlled trial1610 physicians
6 nurses
22 000
  • *Represent missing data.