Table 3 Data extraction of four papers reviewed
Article/AspectWHOWHATWHYWHEREWHENHOWSummary of author conclusions
PopulationInterventionAimContextStudy design, methodStoryline, Outcome
Geographical settingPractice settingTimeline, Background
Balen 2004hospital pharmacistsPrior to introduction of an applied informatics program• To identify pharmacist baseline computer skill needsVancouver, Canadaone multisite hospitalData collected in 2001 Survey (84 questions, 9 domains):
  1. Computer experience

  2. Computer anxiety

  3. Computer vocabulary

  4. Basic computer skills

  5. Communications

  6. Internet skills

  7. Clinical database information retrieval

  8. Access to computers

  9. Anticipated needs 55% response rate (n = 58)

Variety of:
  • Access: home, work

  • Skill levels: literate, not anxious, more training requested

  • Use: internet searching, drug distribution systems, email, patient care systems, minimal office packages (presentation, statistics, and spreadsheet)

Bearman 2005community pharmacistsWeb skills education programme: introduction to the internet; finding online information; introduction to evidence based pharmacy and assessing the quality of information; using internet technologies in daily practicePre: to investigate internet use and education needs
Post: to identify the benefits/weaknesses of an education programme
Victoria, AustraliaCommunity pharmacy educationData collected in 2002Pre:
  • two focus groups (10 and 11 purposively selected) with independent facilitator, 2 hrs inc lunch and $50, scribe and whiteboards

  • Internet use in practice

  • Thematic analysis

Education intervention:
  • 147 enrolled; 104 completed; 93 responded

  • Survey: 16 quantitative questions plus 3 likes, dislikes, 3 changes in practice

  • 93 completed quantitative

  • 107 free text answers

  • inductive analysis of qualitative data

Focus group ( use of the Internet):
  • ½ have access at work

  • Email, search engines but not health specific portals/websites

  • Variation in: technical knowledge and skills

  • Barriers: negative attitude, lack of time, costs, lack of familiarity/expertise, difficulty finding information, resource issues

  • Need: to gain confidence, desire for further education

  • For most, course met expectation

  • Average responses positive, ease of use, aims/objectives met, learning experience

  • Significant online behaviour changes self-reported

Fox 2008Contacts at Schools of PharmacyDefines pharmacy informatics
  • To identify/analyse current state

  • to identify current competencies

  • to develop core set of recomm-endations

USAPharmacy education
  • Data collected 2006

  • ACPE 2007 Guideline 12.1

  • one of five IOM core competencies

  • AMIA/IMIA initiatives

  • ASHP 2015 initiative

  • Invitation letter followed by Two reminder emails

  • 32 out of 89 schools of pharmacy responded (response rate 36%) with 25 providing syllabi

  • four ‘not being taught’

  • three integrated in curriculum

  • Syllabi reviewed against ACPE Standards 2007

  • Content used to develop foundational and core competencies

  • Confusion between pharmacy informatics and drug information practice

  • Much required to be compliant with ACPE 2007

Gosling 2004AHPsTo identify awareness, use, perceived barriers to use and impact of point of care online information systems• To provide baseline data for AHPs use of electronic evidence resourcesAustraliaPublic hospital
  • Data collected 2001–2

  • 1997 state policy

  • Part of CIAP evaluation

Survey of:
  • Quantitative study

  • Convenience sample of 790 staff from 65 hospitals

  • Seven professions (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, clinical psychologists, pharmacists, social workers)

  • Pre-piloted, 25 closed questions

  • SPSS for rates, frequency, Chi-square comparison by profession, t-tests

Concluded were the following:
  • A marked difference between professions (pharmacists highest; social workers lowest)

  • A 90% agreed system had potential to improve patient care

  • Facilitators to use: computer skills and easy access

  • Barriers to use: lack of specific training and lack of time

  • General computer skills training more effective in encouraging use than system specific training

  • Social, organisational and professional support more important than system specific training