Table 1 Study characteristics of studies to evaluate visualizations used in consumer health technologies to support older adults living in the community.
CitationCountrySampleSample description
Ayoade et al.31United KingdomStudy 1: n = 3
Study 2: n = 3
Study 3: n = 2
Study 4: n = 3
  • ≥ 60 years old

  • Mean age (years): Study 1 = 68, Study 2 = 71, Study 3 = 79, and Study 4 = 63

  • Genders: Study 1 = two males/one female, Study 2 = three males, Study 3 = one male/one female, and Study 4 = 2 males/1 female

  • Either had knee replacement surgery in the past 18 months or experienced ≥ one fall within the past year

Bruun-Pedersen et al.32Denmarkn = 10
  • 66–97 years old

  • two males/eight females

  • Seeing a physical therapist

  • Experience with and ability to ride a manuped

Gronvall and Verdezoto (2013)DenmarkPhase 1: n = 102
Phase 2: n = 10
Phase 3: n = 165
  • Phase 1: Mean age 61.8 years; healthy n = 1, taking medication preventively n = 3, chronic disease n = 3, recently had arterial thrombosis or cancer and participating in physical therapy = 3

  • Phase 2: 65–84 years old; self-perceived as being ‘healthy’

  • Phase 3: 22–83 years old; own a health-monitoring device n = 86

Le et al.34United StatesPhase 1: n = 83
Phase 2: unknown
  • Phase 1: ≥ 65 years old; spoke English

  • Phase 2: Gerontology experts

Le et al.35United Statesn = 30
  • ≥ 62 years old; 8 males/22 females; spoke English

  • Resided in private apartments or assisted living facilities

Uzor and Baillie36United KingdomStudy A: n = 44
Study B: n = 3
Study C: n = 2
Study D: n = 2
  • At least a high school education

  • Had previous experience with home exercises

  • Mean age (years): Study A = 71, Study B = 68, Study C = 78, and Study D = 79

  • Genders: Study A = two males/two females, Study B = two males/one female, Study C = two females, and Study D = one male/one female

  • 1 Studies 1 and 2 were completed in a laboratory among participants who experienced a fall or had knee replacement surgery, respectively. Studies 3 and 4 were completed in participants’ homes among those who experienced a fall or had knee replacement surgery, respectively

  • 2 Phase 1 was to understand how older adults maintain awareness of health status. In phase 2, older adults measured their BP and provided feedback on visualizations of their BP data. Phase 3 consisted of a web survey of adults assessing self-monitoring needs.

  • 3 Phase 1 was a pilot study in which community-dwelling older adults used a sensor system in their apartments for six months. Phase 2 consisted of interviews with gerontology experts to gain heuristic-based feedback on visualizations developed by the researcher using Phase 1 data.

  • 4 Study A was conducted in a laboratory and assessed exercise-based games. Study B was conducted in a laboratory and assessed visualizations of user movements. Study C assessed games in participants’ homes. Study D assessed visualizations in participants’ homes.