Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Overall
(n=460)
CAD
(n=322)
No CAD
(n=138)
P value
Age, mean (SD)58.4 (10.4)60.4 (9.7)53.8 (10.6)<0.001
Female sex, n (%)126 (27.4)74 (23.0)52 (37.7)0.002
Smoking, n (%)219 (47.6)177 (55.0)42 (30.4)<0.001
BMI, mean (SD)25.5 (3.0)25.6 (3.0)25.2 (3.0)0.155
Menopause, n (%)107 (84.9)71 (95.9)36 (69.2)<0.001
Early ASCVD family history, n (%)18 (3.9)15 (4.7)3 (2.2)0.128
Hypertension, n (%)267 (58.0)215 (66.8)52 (37.7)<0.001
Hyperlipidaemia, n (%)348 (75.7)295 (91.6)53 (38.4)<0.001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)112 (24.3)96 (29.8)16 (11.6)<0.001
Cerebrovascular event, n (%)67 (14.6)59 (18.3)8 (5.8)0.001
Peripheral artery disease, n (%)48 (10.4)44 (13.7)4 (2.9)0.001
Congestive heart failure, n (%)63 (13.7)32 (9.9)31 (22.5)0.001
Chronic kidney disease, n (%)5 (1.1)4 (1.2)1 (0.7)1.00
COPD, n (%)7 (1.5)5 (1.6)2 (1.4)1.00
Atrial Fibrillation, n (%)35 (7.6)21 (6.5)14 (10.1)0.250
Chronic inflammatory disease, n (%)18 (3.9)14 (4.3)4 (2.9)0.637
CAD symptoms, n (%)
 No symptoms77 (16.7)42 (13.0)35 (25.4)0.002
 Non-anginal102 (22.2)70 (21.7)32 (23.2)
 Atypical146 (31.7)102 (31.7)44 (31.9)
 Typical135 (29.3)108 (33.5)27 (19.6)
Regular medications
 Aspirin, n (%)191 (41.5)173 (53.7)18 (13.0)<0.001
 Beta blocker, n (%)116 (25.2)92 (28.6)24 (17.4)0.016
 Statin, n (%)210 (45.7)173 (53.7)37 (26.8)<0.001
 Nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs, n (%)11 (2.4)7 (2.2)4 (2.9)0.740
 ACEI/ARB, n (%)125 (27.2)103 (32.0)22 (15.9)0.001
 CCB, n (%)121 (26.3)94 (29.2)27 (19.6)0.042
Fast glucose, mean (SD)6.3 (2.0)6.5 (2.2)5.7 (1.3)<0.001
Total cholesterol, mean (SD)4.3 (1.2)4.2 (1.2)4.7 (1.1)<0.001
Triglyceride, mean (SD)1.7 (1.7)1.7 (1.9)1.5 (0.9)0.058
HDL, mean (SD)1.2 (0.3)1.2 (0.3)1.3 (0.3)<0.001
LDL, mean (SD)2.5 (1.0)2.4 (0.9)2.9 (1.0)<0.001
Haemoglobin A1c%, mean (SD)6.3 (1.2)6.4 (1.2)5.9 (0.7)<0.001
ESR, mean (SD)8.0 (9.6)8.3 (10.2)6.7 (5.8)0.069
CRP, mean (SD)3.6 (5.2)3.7 (5.5)3.0 (3.4)0.231
LVEF, mean (SD)63.2 (6.2)62.5 (6.6)65.1 (4.5)<0.001
Coronary confirmatory exam, n (%)<0.001
 ICA379 (82.4)310 (96.3)69 (50.0)
 CCTA81 (17.6)12 (3.7)69 (50.0)
Coronary Lesion severity, n (%)<0.001
 No coronary stenosis >50%138 (30.0)/138 (100.0)
 One vessel89 (19.3)89 (27.6)/
 Two vessels74 (16.1)74 (23.0)/
 Left main or three or more vessels159 (34.6)159 (49.4)/
  • ACEI/ARB, ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker; ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; CCB, calcium channel blocker; CCTA, coronary CT angiography; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRP, C reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; ICA, invasive coronary angiography; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Lp(a), lipoprotein(a); LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.