Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants

CharacteristicsAll aged ≥18 years (n=4957)Older adults aged ≥65 years (n=2024)
Age, years60 (44–71)72 (69–78)
Sex (female)2592 (52.3)1046 (51.7)
BMI22.7 (20.5–25.2)23.0 (20.9–25.3)
Daily step counts5650 (3332–8452)4351 (2314–7023)
<2000478 (12.3)342 (21.1)
2000–3999757 (19.4)400 (24.7)
4000–5999842 (21.6)339 (20.9)
6000–7999714 (18.3)241 (14.9)
8000–9999468 (12.0)147 (9.0)
10 000–11 999284 (7.2)73 (4.5)
12 000–13 999156 (4.0)34 (2.1)
14 000–15 99993 (2.3)24 (1.4)
16 000+107 (2.7)22 (1.3)
Activity limitations in daily living686 (13.8)452 (22.3)
Self-assessed health status (unhealthy)681 (13.7)405 (20.1)
HCAL93.2 (79.6–96.1)83.4 (62.6–91.3)
Obesity34 (0.68)24 (1.1)
Hypertension913 (18.4)675 (33.3)
Diabetes364 (7.3)276 (13.6)
Dyslipidaemia399 (8.0)278 (13.7)
Gout94 (1.9)52 (2.5)
Depression or other mental diseases103 (2.0)24 (1.1)
Dementia34 (0.68)31 (1.5)
Parkinson disease15 (0.30)13 (0.64)
Other neurological disorders, pain or paralysis46 (0.92)27 (1.3)
Stroke, cerebral haemorrhage or infarction72 (1.4)58 (2.8)
Angina, myocardial infarction114 (2.3)94 (4.6)
Other cardiovascular disease116 (2.3)89 (4.4)
Malignant neoplasm or cancer68 (1.3)47 (2.3)
Anaemia or blood disease31 (0.62)14 (0.69)
Thyroid disease89 (1.8)47 (2.3)
Allergic rhinitis123 (2.4)60 (2.9)
Acute nasopharyngitis, common cold19 (0.38)11 (0.54)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease16 (0.32)14 (0.69)
Asthma68 (1.3)34 (1.6)
Other respiratory disease78 (1.5)54 (2.6)
Stomach or duodenum disease101 (2.0)77 (3.8)
Liver or gallbladder disease68 (1.3)40 (1.9)
Other digestive disease65 (1.3)40 (1.9)
Rheumatoid arthritis39 (0.78)28 (1.3)
Arthritis160 (3.2)105 (5.1)
Stiff shoulder149 (3.0)93 (4.5)
Back pain316 (6.3)220 (10.9)
Bone fracture39 (0.78)32 (1.5)
Osteoporosis116 (2.3)101 (4.9)
Other injury or burns37 (0.74)21 (1.0)
Kidney disease65 (1.3)46 (2.2)
Eye disease389 (7.8)319 (15.8)
Ear disease67 (1.3)55 (2.7)
Prostatic hypertrophy108 (2.1)99 (4.8)
Dental disease319 (6.4)194 (9.5)
Atopic dermatitis45 (0.90)6 (0.29)
Other skin disease112 (2.2)49 (2.4)
Menopausal or postmenopausal disorder11 (0.22)1 (0.049)
  • Categorical values represented as numbers (%) and numerical values as median (IQR).

  • BMI, body mass index; HCAL, health condition without activity limitations.