Table 2

List of n-grams from seed phrases (“ceiling of care”, “withdrawal of care”, “limit of care”, “palliative treatments only”, “palliative care only”, “end of life care”, “liverpool care pathway”, “not for intubation”, “not for itu”, “not for critical care”)

Not for cprCeilings of careWard baseFamily discussions
Ward basedNot for resuscitationdnar notFutility
Ward based ceiling of careCeiling of careEscalation beyondOrgan donation
Escalation of careNot for icudnacprBrainstem death
Not for ituNot for nivdnacpr andStem testing
Not for escalationdnar anddnarDiscussions with the family
Escalation andCeiling of treatmentBrainstem testingUnsurvivable
Not for intubationResuscitation asWithdrawal of intensiveCandidate for itu
Ward-based care onlyResusciationWithdrawal of treatmentCeilings of treatment
Not for resusPalliationFamily discussionCandidate for intubation
  • The acronyms identified from this approach were easily interpreted by an experienced clinician: “rx”=treatment; “eolc”=end of life care; “itu”=intensive therapy unit; “icu”=intensive care unit; “hdu”=high dependency unit; “dnacpr” for do not attempt cpr; “niv”=non-invasive ventilation.