Table 3

Thematic analysis of studies highlighting the process measures and outcome measures used, and findings reported

LevelPurposeProcess measuresOutcome measuresFindings
MicroRisk prediction13 47Changes in care management47
Frequency in monitoring or management13
Alert or recommendation generated/compliance47
AKI incidence12 46
AKI progression47
AKI severity13
Length of stay13
Mortality13 47
↑ AKI documentation47
↑ Appropriate medication dosage47
↑ Proportion of SCr tests ordered13
↓ AKI incidence47
↓ Mortality47
Earlier diagnosis16 22 26 27 32–34 42–46Detection42 43
Alert or recommendation generated/compliance26
Changes in care team or setting22 32
Changes in care management16 34 42 46
Appropriate care management16 27
Time to changes in care management27 32
AKI incidence22 26 34 46
AKI progression27 34 44 45
AKI recovery26 27
Duration of AKI34
Length of stay27 34
Mortality26 27 33 34 44 45
Change in SCr33
↑ AKI documentation34 46
↑ AKI incidence34 46
↑ AKI recovery26 27 34 44 45
↑ Interventions26 32 34
↑ Rates of hospitalisation32
↓ Time to intervention26 27
↓ Length of stay34
↓ Mortality44 45
Harm prevention15 19–21 23 24 28 30 35 39–41Detection23
Alert or recommendation compliance19 35 39 41
Changes in care management19 21 23 24 28 35 40
Appropriate care management20 21 23 28 30 41
Time to changes in management15 41
Rate of adverse drug events38 39
AKI progression15
Contrast-induced AKI28
Length of stay40
Mortality40
↑ Alert compliance19 35
↓ Alert compliance39
↑ Appropriate care management19 21 23 24 35
↓ Time to intervention15
↑ Care interventions24
↓ AKI progression15
↓ Length of stay40
↓ Mortality40
↓ Dialysis40
↑ Rate of potential adverse drug events38
↓ Rate of preventable adverse drug events38
MesoEarlier diagnosis12 50–53Detection12
Alert or recommendation generated/compliance50
Appropriate care management50 53
Changes in care team or setting51 52
Changes in care management51
Time to changes in care management12 50 52
AKI incidence50
AKI progression50 51
AKI recovery12
Cardiac arrest51
Change in renal function51
Early detection53
Intensive care unit admission12
Length of stay52
Length of stay cost51
Mortality12 51 52
Need for renal replacement therapy12
Peak SCr52
↑ Alert compliance50
↓ Time to intervention12 50
↑ Recommendations50
↓ AKI incidence50
↓ AKI progression50
↓ Time to AKI recognition12
↓ Possible cardiac arrests51
↓ Costs51
↑ Junior staff anxiety53
Harm prevention11 17 18 25 29 36 48 49Alert or recommendation generated/compliance17 25 29
Changes in care management11
Appropriateness of care management17 18 36 49
Adverse drug events18
AKI incidence11 48
Length of stay18
Cost of antibiotics18
Nephrotoxin exposure
11 48 49
↑ Appropriate care management17 25 36 49
↑ Care management interventions11
↑ Acceptance of recommendations29
↓ AKI intensity11
↓ Length of stay18
↓ Number of adverse drug effects18
MacroEarlier diagnosis31 54Detection54
Changes in care team or setting31 54
Changes in care management54
Alert or recommendation generated/compliance54
Patient given guidance54
AKI diagnosis54
Hospital Standardised Mortality Ratio54
Time to AKI response31
↓ Mortality31
Harm prevention37Appropriate care management37
  • AKI, acute kidney injury; SCr, serum creatinine.