Table 1

Using digital phenotyping for mental health in aviation professionals

Challenges regarding digital phenotypingPossible solutions
Reliability: how well do digital biomarkers associate with mental health?
  • More RCTs comparing digital phenotyping with clinician’s prediction

  • Comparison of different parameters

  • More research into developing algorithms

  • Investigating the use of machine learning

  • Research in healthy individuals

Clinical utility: does it help to improve symptoms and clinical evaluation?
  • Testing benefits of quick detection of onset/relapse

  • Research into role of monitoring in treatment or during follow-up

  • Defining clinical outcomes based on symptoms in future studies

Privacy: how much personal information will be gathered?
  • Data are regarded as medical data to which medical confidentiality laws are applicable

  • Protection of data by dedicated regulation

  • Restricted amount of and ‘content-free’ data modalities

  • Retractable informed consent

Regulation: who is accountable for proper use and protection of data?
  • Only approved apps: guidance for clinicians

  • Only use by healthcare professionals

  • Healthcare professional is responsible for choosing reliable commercial apps

Application: what should it be used for?
  • Monitoring, but not screening

  • Not mandatory

  • RCT, randomised controlled trial.