Table 4

Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick’s (2016) five principles

Kirkpatrick and Kirkpat­rick’s five principles
Principle 1To effectively use the model, desired results serve as the first step in the planning process. Those working in professional development are familiar with a planning process that begins with identification of a professional practice gap.
Principle 2Return on expectations involves understanding what stakeholders’ expectations are.
This helps to identify the value of the activity and allows for the statement of measurable results.
Not all professional continuing education activities involve business partnerships, but when they do, planners need to partner with managers and supervisors to prepare participants for the activity in advance.
These stakeholders will also have key roles to play in reinforcing the application of the newly acquired knowledge and skills.
Principle 3Kirkpatrick30 and Kirkpatrick (2016, p34)41 reported that the learning ac­tivity will typically result in just 15% of on-the-job application. Partnerships with stakehold­ers, such as managers and supervisors, will be important in preparing partic­ipants for the education, as well as in reinforcing the new skills or knowl­edge. The degree to which these af­filiations occur relates directly to the achievement of positive outcomes.
Principle 4Often the major portion of a plan­ner’s efforts and resources are spent on the development and delivery of the learning activity, whereas typically little time is spent on undertakings before and after the training that sup­port behaviour change, the results that stakeholders want. In many instances, providers should redefine their roles to focus more on the achievement of behaviour change. This may be a challenge for many, but it is an important area to consider for future development.
Principle 5By using the Kirkpatrick model and the foundational principles, a chain of evidence can be created that demon­strates the worth of the learning experi­ence. The bottom-line value of the ac­tivity, either qualitative or quantitative, can be measured and shared with stake­holders and the organisation. This is an important way for educators to demon­strate their value to the organisation.